Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science

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Assessment of Water Balance of Deme Watershed, Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model and ARC-GIS for Water Resources Management

Received: Dec. 12, 2022    Accepted: Jan. 17, 2023    Published: Feb. 06, 2023
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Abstract

To deal with water management issues, one must analyse and quantify the different elements of hydrologic processes taking place within the area of interest. Obviously, this analysis must be carried out on a watershed basis because all these process are taking place within individual micro watersheds. Only after understanding the spatial and temporal variation and the interaction of these hydrologic components one can scientifically formulate strategies for water conservation. To achieve this goal the choice and use of an appropriate watershed model is a must. All the thematic maps and attribute information of the watershed have been collected from various Government agencies. SWAT model has been set up for the Deme watershed by inputting the digital thematic maps, physical properties of soil and climatic parameters. Total area of the watershed corresponding to the outlet chosen at Deme watershed is 11284.35km 2 and its elevation varies from 1138 to 3269m. Calibration and validation of the model have been done by comparing the river flow prediction with the observed values. Nash Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R 2) and Percent bias (PBIAS) has given very high values for the calibration 0.75, 0.75 and -0.7% respectively and validation 0.73, 0.74 and 6.3% respectively. The calibrated model has been used to predict the important hydrologic processes. The water balance components of Deme watershed resulted PET 388.5mm, Evaporation and transpiration 293.8mm, Precipitation 1147.5mm, Average curve number 76.38, Surface runoff 189.7mm, Revap from shallow aquifer 7.7mm, Percolation to shallow aquifer 37.59mm, Lateral flow 624.33mm and Recharge to deep aquifer 0.28mm. The study has revealed that SWAT model can effectively be used in the simulation of river flow and for predicting the water balance of a watershed. Water balance information of the basin is of great use in planning water conservation, drainage and flood control.

DOI 10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11
Published in Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science ( Volume 11, Issue 6, December 2022 )
Page(s) 86-98
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Deme, SWAT, Water Balance, Arc GIS, NSE, PBIAS and R2

References
[1] D. Pandi, S. Kothandaraman, K. S. Kasiviswanathan, and M. Kuppusamy, “A catchment scale assessment of water balance components: a case study of Chittar catchment in South India,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 29, no. 48, pp. 72384–72396, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-19032-1.
[2] P. L. Kashinde and K. A. Patil, “WATER BALANCE STUDY OF WATERSHED (GV-53) USING QSWAT IN AURANGABAD DISTRICT,” no. 6, pp. 38–45, 2017.
[3] H. Bo, X. Dong, Z. Li, G. Reta, L. Li, and C. Wei, “Analysis of water balance components and parameter uncertainties based on swat model with cmads data and sufi-2 algorithm in huangbaihe river Catchment, China,” Nat. Environ. Pollut. Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 637–650, 2020, doi: 10.46488/NEPT.2020.V19I02.018.
[4] I. Larbi, E. Obuobie, A. Verhoef, S. Julich, A. Y. Bossa, and D. M. J. Macdonald, “Ac ce pt t,” Hydrol. Sci. J., vol. 0, no. 0, 2020, doi: 10.1080/02626667.2020.1802467.
[5] B. M. Watson, “Evaluation of SWAT for modelling the water balance of the Woady Yaloak River catchment, Victoria,” 2001.
[6] S. Sarkar, V. Vaibhav, and A. Singh, “SIMULATING HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN AN,” no. November, pp. 1–11, 2016.
[7] K. Sathian and P. Syamala, “Application of GIS integrated SWAT model for basin level water balance,” Natl. Conf. Geospatial Technol., pp. 1–15, 2009, [Online]. Available: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Application+of+GIS+integrated+SWAT+model+for+basin+level+water+balance#3.
[8] P. S. Murty, A. Pandey, and S. Suryavanshi, “Application of semi-distributed hydrological model for basin level water balance of the Ken basin of Central India,” Hydrol. Process., vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 4119–4129, 2014, doi: 10.1002/hyp.9950.
[9] K. K. Sandra George, Sathian, “Assessment of Water Balance of a Watershed Using Swat Model for Water Resources Management,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res. Technol., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 177–184, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.ijesrt.xn--com-1ea.
[10] S. S. Guug, S. Abdul-Ganiyu, and R. A. Kasei, “Application of SWAT hydrological model for assessing water availability at the Sherigu catchment of Ghana and Southern Burkina Faso,” HydroResearch, vol. 3, pp. 124–133, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.hydres.2020.10.002.
[11] S. Z. Farzana, M. A. Zafor, and J. Al Shahariar, “Application of SWAT Model for Assessing Water Availability in Surma River Basin,” J. Civ. Eng. Forum, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 29, 2019, doi: 10.22146/jcef.39191.
[12] J. G. Arnold et al., “SWAT: Model use, calibration, and validation,” Trans. ASABE, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1491–1508, 2012.
[13] J. G. Arnold, J. R. Kiniry, R. Srinivasan, J. R. Williams, E. B. Haney, and S. L. Neitsch, “Input/Output Documentation Soil & Water Assessment Tool,” pp. 1–650, 2012.
[14] J. R. W. S. L. NEITSCH, J. G. ARNOLD, J. R. KINIRY, “S Oil and W Ater a Ssessment T Ool D Ocumentation,” 2005.
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    Eyasu Tafese Mekuria. (2023). Assessment of Water Balance of Deme Watershed, Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model and ARC-GIS for Water Resources Management. Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science, 11(6), 86-98. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11

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    ACS Style

    Eyasu Tafese Mekuria. Assessment of Water Balance of Deme Watershed, Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model and ARC-GIS for Water Resources Management. J. Water Resour. Ocean Sci. 2023, 11(6), 86-98. doi: 10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11

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    AMA Style

    Eyasu Tafese Mekuria. Assessment of Water Balance of Deme Watershed, Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model and ARC-GIS for Water Resources Management. J Water Resour Ocean Sci. 2023;11(6):86-98. doi: 10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11,
      author = {Eyasu Tafese Mekuria},
      title = {Assessment of Water Balance of Deme Watershed, Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model and ARC-GIS for Water Resources Management},
      journal = {Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {86-98},
      doi = {10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wros.20221106.11},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.wros.20221106.11},
      abstract = {To deal with water management issues, one must analyse and quantify the different elements of hydrologic processes taking place within the area of interest. Obviously, this analysis must be carried out on a watershed basis because all these process are taking place within individual micro watersheds. Only after understanding the spatial and temporal variation and the interaction of these hydrologic components one can scientifically formulate strategies for water conservation. To achieve this goal the choice and use of an appropriate watershed model is a must. All the thematic maps and attribute information of the watershed have been collected from various Government agencies. SWAT model has been set up for the Deme watershed by inputting the digital thematic maps, physical properties of soil and climatic parameters. Total area of the watershed corresponding to the outlet chosen at Deme watershed is 11284.35km 2 and its elevation varies from 1138 to 3269m. Calibration and validation of the model have been done by comparing the river flow prediction with the observed values. Nash Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R 2) and Percent bias (PBIAS) has given very high values for the calibration 0.75, 0.75 and -0.7% respectively and validation 0.73, 0.74 and 6.3% respectively. The calibrated model has been used to predict the important hydrologic processes. The water balance components of Deme watershed resulted PET 388.5mm, Evaporation and transpiration 293.8mm, Precipitation 1147.5mm, Average curve number 76.38, Surface runoff 189.7mm, Revap from shallow aquifer 7.7mm, Percolation to shallow aquifer 37.59mm, Lateral flow 624.33mm and Recharge to deep aquifer 0.28mm. The study has revealed that SWAT model can effectively be used in the simulation of river flow and for predicting the water balance of a watershed. Water balance information of the basin is of great use in planning water conservation, drainage and flood control.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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Author Information
  • Department of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia

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